Zebras in Namibia

Types of Photography

Photographic work can be divided into dozens of categories, many with lots of sub-categories.  The following list describes some common types of photography.

Aerial From a plane, helicopter, balloon or other airborne device.
Adventure, Action Adventure sports, daring feats, etc.
Amateur Any type of photography practiced by non-professionals.
Animal, Pet Pets and their relationships with humans.  Note that the human content is often as important as the animal.
Architecture, Real Estate The art of making property appear attractive.  Often involves panoramic photography.
Artistic Photography in which creative composition is the goal.
Astrophotography Space photography, through a telescope.
Aura A controversial type of photography which some claim can photograph a person’s aura.  Often confused with Kirlian photography.
Black & White Not simply photography without colour, black and white photography explores shapes, tones and textures.  Shadows and highlights become much more important.
Camera Phone “Convenience” photography using a mobile phone’s built-in camera.  While not the best quality, camera phones have opened a new world of spontaneous, on-the-spot photo opportunities.
Commercial Product shots, advertising, etc.
Digiscoping Photography through a telescope or binoculars.
Documentary Journalism, Events, Historical, Political, etc.
Event Concerts, parties, festivals, weddings, etc.
Forensic Police and legal photography.
Infrared Photography in which the recording medium is sensitive to infrared light rather than the normal visible light spectrum.
Large Format For use on posters, billboards, etc.
Kirlian A type of contact print photography in which an object touching a photographic plate is connected to a high voltage source, creating an aura-like image.  Often confused with aura photography.
Macro The art of photographing very small and/or close-up objects.
Medical Specialized photography for clinical purposes, i.e. to help reveal and diagnose illness.
Microscopic Any technique for photographing objects too small to be visible to humans.
Modeling Photographing objects to be converted into 3D models.
Nature Landscapes, animals, plants, sea, etc.
Night Any technique used to capture images at night.  Often includes infrared photography.
Panoramic Views of wide areas, up to complete 360° panoramas.
Paranormal Ghosts, unexplained phenomena, etc.
People Candid, Family, Fashion, Glamour, Passports & Visas, Portrait, Pregnancy, School, Sports, Wedding.
Pinhole Uses the most basic type of camera possible — a box with a tiny hole to let light in.
Scenic Landscape, Cityscape.
Satellite Views of Earth from orbit.
Scientific Any specialized photography used for scientific endeavour, e.g. electron microscopy photographs, medical photography, astrophotography, etc.
Sports The specialized art of shooting people engaged in sports, games and adventure activities.
Stereoscopic (3-D) Involves taking two photos simultaneously to simulate 3-D vision.
Stock Photographs taken for distribution to other people, for use in their projects.  These photos tend to be quite generic, e.g. people working, landscapes, places, etc.
Time-lapse Photographs with a very long exposure, used to illustrate something happening over time.  A popular example is a street at night with car lights blurred into long lines.
Travel Photography to showcase locations, illustrate travel literature, etc.
Underwater Any type of photography taken under water with a water-tight camera housing.
Ultraviolet Photography in which the recording medium is sensitive to ultraviolet light rather than the normal visible light spectrum.
Urban, Street, Industrial Emphasizing urban environments.

 

Common Photo Problems – Digital Noise

Avoid Digital Noise

Digital noise is comparable to the “grain” you sometimes notice in film photography, as you see here in this noisy photo.  Not only do noise and film grain look somewhat similar, but they are also caused by similar factors.

Both are accentuated by high ISO levels, for example. ISO is a measure of your camera’s sensitivity to light, which you can increase to take photos in low-light situations.  You’ll always have some noise in your photos, even at your camera’s lowest ISO; but the higher you crank the camera’s ISO, the more noise that results.  Long exposures are also major contributors to noise:  The longer the exposure, the hotter your camera sensor gets–and all that heat contributes to digital noise in the final image.  It’s rarely a problem in daylight, but long exposures at night can fill your photos with noise.

So how do you avoid digital noise?  In general, shoot with the lowest ISO possible.  You might need to bump up your ISO when you’re shooting indoors without a flash, for instance, but don’t crank it all the way to ISO 1600 when ISO 800 might do.  Just increase the ISO until the shutter speed is fast enough to take a sharp photo, which is usually something like the inverse of the focal length.

Here’s an example: If the lens is set to 100mm, you can probably get a fairly steady shot with a shutter speed of 1/100 second.  Likewise, though longer exposures can lead to extra noise, you can fight back by turning on your camera’s built-in noise reduction.  Many cameras have an noise reduction feature that kicks in automatically or is applied to only certain types of noise.  If none of these features works for you or is available in your camera, you can always use your image-processing software to help reduce the noise.

Moving Images and Images That Move Us

The rise of the internet has spouted a deluge of images. Has it rendered the visual nearly meaningless? If so, how can skilled creators use tech to turn that around?

There was a time when seeing a picture was a rare privilege. In the days before photography and the modern printing process you’d be lucky to have your own artwork at home, and if you did, family, neighbors, and guests would probably gather around it for hours on end. Though the printing press made images available on a mass level in the 15th century, they were still not cheap or easy to come by for most. By the late 18th century magazines started to find their place in households around the world and by the middle of the 20th century advertisers using images as a means for communication had reached their golden age. There was no casually thumbing through the few magazines you had access to each month. Each picture would be dutifully inspected and a great image would be remembered for life.

For a hundred years that was the way of the world until the information age when the Internet spouted at first a steady trickle and then a deluge of images. Today the average person surfing the Internet and sites like Tumblr or Instagram may see hundreds if not thousands of new pictures and images a day. Whether they’re good, bad, or ugly, images go in and out of our consciousness without leaving much, if any, impression.

Read full article here

Common Photo Problems – Red Eye

Prevent the Dreaded Red-Eye

Not to be confused with Pink-Eye, for which you should seek medical attention.

You’ll usually see the red-eye effect in low light, when your subject’s eyes naturally dilate to let in as much light as possible. When you fire your camera flash, the light passes through the open pupils and bounces off the back of the eye, which then looks red. That’s why you’ll never see red-eye in a photo taken outdoors in bright sunlight. To minimize the possibility of red-eye, take your pictures outdoors in daylight, or inside near a window where you have natural lighting. At night, brighten the room by turning on all the lights you can.

If you’re stuck in a dimly lit room or if you’re outdoors at night, turn to your camera for help. Your camera’s red-eye reduction mode (usually identified by an eye-shaped icon) fires the flash several times quickly right before the camera takes the picture, forcing your subject’s pupils to close down to a smaller size. Remember that the picture hasn’t been captured at the first sign of flash, so hold the camera steady–and warn your subject to hold still for a few seconds, to be sure that the camera is done taking the photo.

Your camera’s red-eye mode can help, but it isn’t a cure; you still might end up with red-eye in some photos. When that happens, use the red-eye tool in your favorite photo editor to blot out the red.

Sunflower

Farm Start - Sunflower

Keep your face to the sunshine and you cannot see the shadow.
It’s what sunflowers do.
~Helen Keller~

Gentle Giant



It was six men of Indostan
To learning much inclined,
Who went to see the Elephant
(Though all of them were blind),
That each by observation
Might satisfy his mind. The First approach’d the Elephant,
And happening to fall
Against his broad and sturdy side,
At once began to bawl:
“God bless me! but the Elephant
Is very like a wall!” The Second, feeling of the tusk,
Cried, -”Ho! what have we here
So very round and smooth and sharp?
To me ’tis mighty clear
This wonder of an Elephant
Is very like a spear!” The Third approached the animal,
And happening to take
The squirming trunk within his hands,
Thus boldly up and spake:
“I see,” quoth he, “the Elephant
Is very like a snake!”
The Fourth reached out his eager hand,
And felt about the knee.
“What most this wondrous beast is like
Is mighty plain,” quoth he,
“‘Tis clear enough the Elephant
Is very like a tree!” The Fifth, who chanced to touch the ear,
Said: “E’en the blindest man
Can tell what this resembles most;
Deny the fact who can,
This marvel of an Elephant
Is very like a fan!” The Sixth no sooner had begun
About the beast to grope,
Then, seizing on the swinging tail
That fell within his scope,
“I see,” quoth he, “the Elephant
Is very like a rope!” And so these men of Indostan
Disputed loud and long,
Each in his own opinion
Exceeding stiff and strong,
Though each was partly in the right,
And all were in the wrong!

John Godfrey Saxe’s ( 1816-1887) version of the famous Indian legend.

Alone

Cuba - Dog

He is your friend, your partner, your defender, your dog.
You are his life, his love, his leader.
He will be yours, faithful and true, to the last beat of his heart.
You owe it to him to be worthy of such devotion.
~Unknown~

Electric Bike

Electric Bike

Resting

Cuba - Dog

Heaven goes by favour.
If it went by merit,
you would stay out and
your dog would go in.
~Mark Twain~